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Пълна версия: Untapping The Power Of Nature: Essential Oil Extraction Methods
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Untapping The Power Of Nature: Essential Oil Extraction Methods

    Have you ever wondered about how to make essential oils? Let us explain that Essential Oils are not made, but instead, they are extracted from plant materials. Extractions are used to obtain a plant’s active botanical constituents that function as its “life force.” They are essentially the liquefied version of a plant, and they effectively allow its beneficial compounds to reach the bloodstream faster than they would by simply consuming the plant.

    A  herbal extract is produced when a botanical material is introduced to a solvent in which some of the plant material components dissolve. Ultimately, the solvent becomes infused with the botanical materials that it has pulled from the source plant, and this is what is referred to as the “extract.” The solution that remains at the end of the process can be liquid, or the liquid can be removed to turn the remnants of the botanical into a solid. The solvents can act as preservatives or as agents that help plant cells to break down and release their contents.

    Steam Distillation is the most popular method used to extract and isolate essential oils from plants for use in natural products. This happens when the steam vaporizes the plant material’s volatile compounds, which eventually go through a condensation and collection process.

    STEAM DISTILLATION PROCESS

            A large container called a  Still, which is usually made of stainless steel, containing the plant material has steam added to it.
        
            Through an inlet, steam is injected through the plant material containing the desired oils, releasing the plant’s aromatic molecules and turning them into vapor.
        
            The vaporized plant compounds travel to the condensation flask or the  Condenser.  Here, two separate pipes make it possible for hot water to exit and for cold water to enter the Condenser. This makes the vapor cool back into liquid form.
       
            The aromatic liquid by-product drops from the Condenser and collects inside a receptacle underneath it, which is called a  Separator. Because water and oil do not mix, the essential oil floats on top of the water. From here, it is siphoned off. (Some essential oils are heavier than water, such as clove essential oil, so they are found at the bottom of the Separator.)
        
    This method employs food grade solvents like hexane and ethanol to isolate essential oils from plant material. It is best suited for plant materials that yield low amounts of essential oil, that are largely resinous, or that are delicate aromatics unable to withstand the pressure and distress of steam distillation. This method also produces a finer fragrance than any type of distillation method.

    Through this process, the non-volatile plant material such as waxes and pigments, are also extracted and sometimes removed through other processes.

    Once the plant material has been treated with the solvent, it produces a waxy aromatic compound called a "concrete." When this concrete substance is mixed with alcohol, the oil particles are released. The aforementioned chemicals used in the process then remain in the oil and the oil is used in perfumes by the perfume industry or for aromatherapy purposes.

    Why Transformer Oil Filtration Is Required

    Transformer is one of the main asset in the electrical power industry which needs to be maintained for guaranteed uninterrupted power transmission in order to get assured revenue benefits. Transformer oils are important for the functional transformers and are the dielectric substance that helps in maintaining their temperature. Transformer oils are vital for the proper running and functioning of the transformers.

    Transformers require filtered and dried oil. During its usage, the insulating oil absorbs moisture and gets polluted by sopping fibers, dirty particles, aging products, and soot. Even unused oil is not clean enough as it may have absorbed moisture from the air or may have got polluted in the barrel it was stored in. The efficiency of the oil as an insulating material is highly reduced as the moisture level increases. Hence, transformer oil filtering is an important process which eliminates solid particles, dissolved gasses, and dissolved water. The electrical properties of the oil can be enhanced by filtering, dehydration, and degassing. Oil Filtering keeps the transformer in good condition and increases its life.

    The increasing rating requirements of modern transformers and electrical apparatus results in greater electrical stress in insulating material and fluids. In order to handle these greater stresses, oils are required to have better dielectric strength, and lower residual water content must be maintained. The timely and proper treatment of these insulating fluids will result in the improvement of the properties of the entire insulating system of power transformers. The principal functions of the insulating fluid are to serve as a dielectric material and an effective coolant. To perform these functions, the insulating fluid must have specific necessary qualities at the time of initial impregnation and filling at the factory which must be maintained at the same quality level in field operation if optimum performance is to be assured.

    Almost 75 percent of the transformer failures happen due to contaminated and deteriorated oil. It is important to filter the transformer oil. Regular maintenance is of utmost significance as it is a great financial burden to replace or repair the transformer. Ignoring transformer oil filtering can lead to:

            Arcing
        
            Overheating, which reduces electrical efficiency as well as the life of the transformer
        
            Corona Discharges
        
            Decrease in insulating strength of the transformer oil, and more
        
    Should I filter new hydraulic oil into my system

    When replacing hydraulic fluid, it is tempting to believe that the new oil will be clean and free of contaminants, and that it can be put straight into the reservoir without any problems.   Unfortunately, this is not always the case.   If you use hydraulic oil from a large drum, there is a high chance that it already contains some water and dirt particles; new hydraulic oil typically has a cleanliness level of ISO 4406 23/21/18, which is more than most hydraulic systems will tolerate.   If the system has a rating of say, 20/18/15, then the new hydraulic oil is already too contaminated, as a single digit increase in any of those numbers is effectively a doubling of the contamination level for each micron size.

    We can see, therefore, that it is a good idea to filter new hydraulic oil before it enters the system taking with it contamination that will potentially lead to problems with the system.   Most hydraulic system failures can be traced back to contaminants in the oil causing friction, high temperatures and a loss or build-up of pressure that can cause serious damage to the components within.   Avoidable problems should not be encouraged by cutting corners when replacing hydraulic fluid as it is a false economy.

    If you usually replace the hydraulic oil straight into the reservoir, you can add a filtration cart or a kidney loop system to clean the fluid before it gets into the system itself.   Even if you have a filter downstream it is a good idea to still keep a filtration system in the reservoir too, to ensure that the downstream filter does not have to work too hard and retains the lifespan it is expected to have, cutting down on element changes.   A kidney loop system is ideal for filtering hydraulic fluid in the reservoir and runs independently of the equipment itself, meaning it can still be cleaning the oil even when the equipment is not being used.   This means that the fluid can be filtered thoroughly before the machinery is switched back on and also offers a higher level of filtration throughout the life of both the hydraulic fluid and the equipment itself.

    Dual filter elements are usually used in kidney loop systems to filter out particles of different sizes and ensure that the filter does not become clogged too early.   This also allows for better element change schedules as they can both be done at the same time, rather than replacing the first, then the second, then the first again and so forth more frequently.   The dual filter elements in a kidney loop system also perform better than in-system filters, as they are not exposed to any pressure and can retain contaminants more effectively.

    Methods To Purify Oil Used By Best Transformer Manufacturing Company In India

    Oil used as insulating agent in transformer has great importance. Any contamination in the oil like foreign particle, small or large oil, can affect the functioning of transformer at great level. So it very important to purify the insulting oil before filling it into the transformer. Rajasthan Powergen, the  best transformer manufacturing company in India  is sharing different options trending in transformer manufacturing companies to purify the oil.

    Transformer oil purification plant also known as oil filtering system or purifier is used to purify insulating oil which is used in transformer. To boost the quality of transformer oil, transformer manufacturing company must eliminate gas, moisture or any solid content from it. For better results, most manufacturers are purifying oil with different kinds of oil filter machines or oil treatment equipments.

    Besides Vacuum oil purifiers, other method manufacturer use to remove gas and water content from oil is through oil heating degassing vacuum dehydration process. In this method, transformer oil is heated using oil mist spray and as a result of which gas and water content in the oil get vaporized. Water container is used to expel excess water which was cooled down by the condenser. To prevent ageing of transformer oil, the temperature of oil is generally kept low around 60 degree. This approach for degasification and dehydration works far better than those of conventional methods.

    If transformer oil is highly contaminated or dirty, because of the amalgamation of molecule of oil with smaller impurities, manufacturer uses specialized waste oil processing system. In this system, activated alumina or silica is used as adsorbent. Silica gel tank set up is partitioned into various chambers so that there is complete access to silicone and transformer oil. To accomplish full absorption effect, the process of heating of transformer oil in gel tank is repeated. After the complete absorption of contaminants, the oil is transferred into the filtration tank.

    How will you separate oil and water from their mixture?

    Two immiscible liquids, oil and water, can be separated by using Separating Funnel.  The mixture of oil and water forms two separate layers because they are completely insoluble in each other. Oil forms the upper layer while water forms lower. In separating funnel they are kept for resting, when two layers become stable by using separating funnel they are filtered one by one. The process involves using the mixtures of unequal particle density. The mechanism involves taking advantage of the unequal density of the particles in the mixture. Because water is denser than oil, it can be separated by means of the funnel and left in the funnel with an oil layer.
Once the liquids are taken in the funnel, we can see the formation of two layers. The denser liquid sinks to the bottom and the other liquid is on the top. A conical flask is placed at the bottom to collect the denser liquid. The valve allows you to control when and how of the liquid is let through down to the conical flask.
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